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Abstract. Understanding variations in atmospheric ozone in the Arctic is difficult because there are only a few long-term records of vertical ozone profiles in this region. We present 12 years of ozone profiles from February 2005 to February 2017 at four sites: Summit Station, Greenland; Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway; and Alert and Eureka, Nunavut, Canada. These profiles are created by combining ozonesonde measurements with ozone profile retrievals using data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). This combination creates a high-quality dataset with low uncertainty values by relying on in situ measurements of the maximum altitude of the ozonesondes (∼30 km) and satellite retrievals in the upper atmosphere (up to 60 km). For each station, the total column ozone (TCO) and the partial column ozone (PCO) in four atmospheric layers (troposphere to upper stratosphere) are analyzed. Overall, the seasonal cycles are similar at these sites. However, the TCO over Ny-Ålesund starts to decline 2 months later than at the other sites. In summer, the PCO in the upper stratosphere over Summit Station is slightly higher than at the other sites and exhibits a higher standard deviation. The decrease in PCO in the middle and upper stratosphere during fall is also lower over Summit Station. The maximum value of the lower- and middle-stratospheric PCO is reached earlier in the year over Eureka. Trend analysis over the 12-year period shows significant trends in most of the layers over Summit and Ny-Ålesund during summer and fall. To understand deseasonalized ozone variations, we identify the most important dynamical drivers of Arctic ozone at each level. These drivers are chosen based on mutual selected proxies at the four sites using stepwise multiple regression (SMR) analysis of various dynamical parameters with deseasonalized data. The final regression model is able to explain more than 80 % of the TCO and more than 70 % of the PCO in almost all of the layers. The regression model provides the greatest explanatory value in the middle stratosphere. The important proxies of the deseasonalized ozone time series at the four sites are tropopause pressure (TP) and equivalent latitude (EQL) at 370 K in the troposphere, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, the equivalent latitude at 550 K in the middle and upper stratosphere, and the eddy heat flux (EHF) and volume of polar stratospheric clouds throughout the stratosphere.
Accurate measurements of cloud properties are necessary to document the full range of cloud conditions and characteristics. The Cloud, Aerosol Polarization and Backscatter Lidar (CAPABL) has been developed to address this need by measuring depolarization, particle orientation, and the backscatter of clouds and aerosols. The lidar is located at Summit, Greenland (72.6°N, 38.5°W; 3200 m MSL), as part of the Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric State, and Precipitation at Summit Project and NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Monitoring Division's lidar network. Here, the instrument is described with particular emphasis placed upon the implementation of new polarization methods developed to measure particle orientation and improve the overall accuracy of lidar depolarization measurements. Initial results from the lidar are also shown to demonstrate the ability of the lidar to observe cloud properties.
We present the first reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008). CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO in 1950 was 140–150 nmol mol−1, which is higher than today's values. CO mole fractions rose by 10–15 nmol mol−1 from 1950 to the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a ≈ 30 nmol mol−1 decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radicals (OH), as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless unrealistically large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories strongly underestimate historical NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.
Abstract. Given the sensitivity of the Arctic climate to short-lived climate forcers, long-term inÂ situ surface measurements of aerosol parameters are useful in gaining insight into the magnitude and variability of these climate forcings. Seasonality of aerosol optical properties â€“ including the aerosol light-scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, single-scattering albedo, scattering Ã…ngstrÃ¶m exponent, and asymmetry parameter â€“ are presented for six monitoring sites throughout the Arctic: Alert, Canada; Barrow, USA; Pallas, Finland; Summit, Greenland; Tiksi, Russia; and Zeppelin Mountain, Ny-Ã…lesund, Svalbard, Norway. Results show annual variability in all parameters, though the seasonality of each aerosol optical property varies from site to site. There is a large diversity in magnitude and variability of scattering coefficient at all sites, reflecting differences in aerosol source, transport, and removal at different locations throughout the Arctic. Of the Arctic sites, the highest annual mean scattering coefficient is measured at Tiksi (12.47Mmâˆ’1), and the lowest annual mean scattering coefficient is measured at Summit (1.74Mmâˆ’1). At most sites, aerosol absorption peaks in the winter and spring, and has a minimum throughout the Arctic in the summer, indicative of the Arctic haze phenomenon; however, nuanced variations in seasonalities suggest that this phenomenon is not identically observed in all regions of the Arctic. The highest annual mean absorption coefficient is measured at Pallas (0.48Mmâˆ’1), and Summit has the lowest annual mean absorption coefficient (0.12Mmâˆ’1). At the Arctic monitoring stations analyzed here, mean annual single-scattering albedo ranges from 0.909 (at Pallas) to 0.960 (at Barrow), the mean annual scattering Ã…ngstrÃ¶m exponent ranges from 1.04 (at Barrow) to 1.80 (at Summit), and the mean asymmetry parameter ranges from 0.57 (at Alert) to 0.75 (at Summit). Systematic variability of aerosol optical properties in the Arctic supports the notion that the sites presented here measure a variety of aerosol populations, which also experience different removal mechanisms. A robust conclusion from the seasonal cycles presented is that the Arctic cannot be treated as one common and uniform environment but rather is a region with ample spatiotemporal variability in aerosols. This notion is important in considering the design or aerosol monitoring networks in the region and is important for informing climate models to better represent short-lived aerosol climate forcers in order to yield more accurate climate predictions for the Arctic.
Cloud and atmospheric properties strongly influence the mass and energy budgets of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). To address critical gaps in the understanding of these systems, a new suite of cloud- and atmosphere-observing instruments has been installed on the central GIS as part of the Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric State, and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) project. During the first 20 months in operation, this complementary suite of active and passive ground-based sensors and radiosondes has provided new and unique perspectives on important cloud–atmosphere properties.
High atop the GIS, the atmosphere is extremely dry and cold with strong near-surface static stability predominating throughout the year, particularly in winter. This low-level thermodynamic structure, coupled with frequent moisture inversions, conveys the importance of advection for local cloud and precipitation formation. Cloud liquid water is observed in all months of the year, even the particularly cold and dry winter, while annual cycle observations indicate that the largest atmospheric moisture amounts, cloud water contents, and snowfall occur in summer and under southwesterly flow. Many of the basic structural properties of clouds observed at Summit, Greenland, particularly for low-level stratiform clouds, are similar to their counterparts in other Arctic regions.
The ICECAPS observations and accompanying analyses will be used to improve the understanding of key cloud–atmosphere processes and the manner in which they interact with the GIS. Furthermore, they will facilitate model evaluation and development in this data-sparse but environmentally unique region.
Abstract. Within the framework of the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA), we report a modelling-based study on surface ozone across the Arctic. We use surface ozone from six sites – Summit (Greenland), Pallas (Finland), Barrow (USA), Alert (Canada), Tiksi (Russia), and Villum Research Station (VRS) at Station Nord (North Greenland, Danish realm) – and ozone-sonde data from three Canadian sites: Resolute, Eureka, and Alert. Two global chemistry models – a global chemistry transport model (parallelised-Tropospheric Offline Model of Chemistry and Transport, p-TOMCAT) and a global chemistry climate model (United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosol, UKCA) – are used for model data comparisons. Remotely sensed data of BrO from the GOME-2 satellite instrument and ground-based multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) at Eureka, Canada, are used for model validation. The observed climatology data show that spring surface ozone at coastal sites is heavily depleted, making ozone seasonality at Arctic coastal sites distinctly different from that at inland sites. Model simulations show that surface ozone can be greatly reduced by bromine chemistry. In April, bromine chemistry can cause a net ozone loss (monthly mean) of 10–20 ppbv, with almost half attributable to open-ocean-sourced bromine and the rest to sea-ice-sourced bromine. However, the open-ocean-sourced bromine, via sea spray bromide depletion, cannot by itself produce ozone depletion events (ODEs; defined as ozone volume mixing ratios, VMRs, < 10 ppbv). In contrast, sea-ice-sourced bromine, via sea salt aerosol (SSA) production from blowing snow, can produce ODEs even without bromine from sea spray, highlighting the importance of sea ice surface in polar boundary layer chemistry. Modelled total inorganic bromine (BrY) over the Arctic sea ice is sensitive to model configuration; e.g. under the same bromine loading, BrY in the Arctic spring boundary layer in the p-TOMCAT control run (i.e. with all bromine emissions) can be 2 times that in the UKCA control run. Despite the model differences, both model control runs can successfully reproduce large bromine explosion events (BEEs) and ODEs in polar spring. Model-integrated tropospheric-column BrO generally matches GOME-2 tropospheric columns within ∼ 50 % in UKCA and a factor of 2 in p-TOMCAT. The success of the models in reproducing both ODEs and BEEs in the Arctic indicates that the relevant parameterizations implemented in the models work reasonably well, which supports the proposed mechanism of SSA production and bromide release on sea ice. Given that sea ice is a large source of SSA and halogens, changes in sea ice type and extent in a warming climate will influence Arctic boundary layer chemistry, including the oxidation of atmospheric elemental mercury. Note that this work dose not necessary rule out other possibilities that may act as a source of reactive bromine from the sea ice zone.