BLAST II Homepage This is the official mission logo. Click on the image to download an encapsuled postscript file from our public ftp site, it's called blast2.eps (a compressed version is also available). 


This cruise was a continuation of the BLAST 94 mission in order to verify findings from the first cruise. In addition to all compounds that were measured during BLAST 94, we added some other halogenated methanes. The cruise led our team through the Atlantic ocean, covered an equally wide latitudinal range as BLAST 94, similar oceanic regimes such as coastal and coastally influenced waters, upwelling regions and open ocean gyres, but slightly different seasons, fall in the northern hemisphere and spring in the southern hemisphere. The entire cruise was almost 5 weeks long and was conducted between 18 October, 1994 and 21 November, 1994. The data for methyl bromide basically confirmed what we saw during BLAST 94 and contributed valuable information to our database for methyl halides. 

Methods and list of (the most important) measured compounds:

Gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer combination:
CFC-12 CCl2F2
Methyl chloride CH3Cl 
CFC-114 C2Cl2F4
Halon-1211 CBrClF2
Methyl bromide CH3Br 
CFC-11 CCl3F
Methyl iodide CH3
Methyl chloroform CH3CCl3
Carbon tetrachloride CCl4
Dibromomethane CH2Br2
Perchloroethylene (PCE) C2Cl4
Bromoform CHBr3
Gas chromatograph / electron capture detector (deepwater):
Methyl bromide CH3Br 
CFC-12 CCl2F2
Methyl chloride CH3Cl 
Nitrous Oxide N2
Gas chromatograph / electron capture detector (surface water):
CFC-12 CCl2F2
CFC-11 CCl3
CFC-113 CCl3CF3
Methyl chloroform CH3CCl3
Carbon tetrachloride CCl4
Nitrous Oxide N2
Sulfur Hexafluoride SF6

Cruise Participants:

  • James H. Butler (leg 1a)

  • Jürgen M. Lobert (legs 1a and 1b) 
    Laurie S. Geller (legs 1a and 1b) 
    Shari A. Yvon (legs 1a and 1b)

    From left to right: Jim, Laurie, Shari, and Jürgen, just arriving in Punta Arenas, Chile. 

    The Platform:

    The FS Polarstern operates out of Bremerhaven, Germany, and is run by the Alfred Wegener Institut für Polarforschung mainly as a research vessel and supply ship for the German Antarctica station Georg von Neumayer. The ship is 105 m long and 25 m wide. It was put into service in 1982 and is run by a 41 hand crew, with a capacity of up to 40 scientists. The ship is designed to break through ice of up to 4 m thickness and is supplied with, amongst others, two helicopters, several heavy-duty cranes, and space for 16 containers. 


    Cruise Track:

    BLAST II is shown in red through the Atlantic Ocean, out of Bremerhaven, Germany into Punta Arenas, Chile. 


  • James H. Butler +1 303 497 6898 (tel) 6290 (fax)

  • Jürgen M. Lobert +1 619 822 0297 (tel) 534 4922 (fax)
    Shari A. Yvon +1 305 361 4441 (tel) 4392 (fax)


  • The distribution and cycling of halogenated trace gases between the atmosphere and ocean, J.H. Butler, J.M. Lobert, S.A. Yvon, and L.S. Geller, In: G. Kattner and D.K. Fütterer (eds.), The Expedition ANTARKTIS XII of FS Polarstern in 1994/95, Reports of Legs ANT XII/1 and 2, Berichte zur Polarforschung, Vol 168, 27-40. Bremerhaven, Germany: Alfred Wegener Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung (1995).
  • BLAST 94: Bromine Latitudinal Air/Sea Transect 1994: Report on Oceanic Measurements of Methyl Bromide and Other Compounds, J.M. Lobert, J.H. Butler, L.S. Geller, S.A. Yvon, S.A. Montzka, R.C. Myers, A.D. Clarke, and J.W. Elkins, NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL CMDL-10 (1996).
  • Implications of methyl bromide supersaturations in the temperate North Atlantic Ocean, D.B. King, J.H. Butler, S.A. Montzka, S.A. Yvon-Lewis, and J.W. Elkins, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 19,763-19,769 (2000).
  • Data & Graphs

    Data from this cruise can be downloaded from our public ftp site at, subdir /hats/ocean/blast_ii.