Battle, M., M. Bender, T. Sowers, P. P. Tans, J. H. Butler, J. W. Elkins, J. T. Ellis, T. J. Conway, N. Zhang, P. M. Lang and A. D. Clarket, (1996), Atmospheric gas concentrations over the past century measured in air from firn at the South Pole, Nature, 383, 6597, 231-235, doi:10.1038/383231a0


The extraction and analysis of air from the snowpack (firn) at the South Pole provides atmospheric concentration histories of biogenic greenhouse gases since the beginning of the present century which confirm and expand on those derived from studies of air trapped in ice cores. Furthermore, calculations based on the inferred atmospheric concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide indicate that–in contrast to the past few years—the terrestrial biosphere was neither a source nor sink of C02 between ~1977 and 1985.