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Park Falls, Wisconsin, United States
Site Latitude 45° 56' 42.36" N (45.94510 °N)
Site Longitude 90° 16' 23.52" W (-90.27320 °E)
Site Elevation472.0 masl
Site codeLEF
Datasetco2_lef_tower-insitu_1_allvalid-396magl (GLOBALVIEW identifier LEF_01C3)
Selection schemeall valid hourly data from 396 magl
Data providerArlyn Andrews, NOAA ESRL GMD, 325 Broadway GMD-1, Boulder, CO 80305-3328, United States, and Peter Bakwin, United States
Partner(s)Ken Davis, Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, United States, and Ankur Desai, United States, and Dan Baumann, United States
NOAA Global Monitoring Division, 325 Broadway, NOAA GMD-1, Boulder, CO 80305-3328, United States
University of Wisconsin, United States
Download these data via ObsPack.

(a) Time series of CO2 mole fractions, both simulated and observed, at this CarbonTracker observation site. Vertical black line at March 16th, 2019 marks the beginning of CT-NRT.v2020-1 period. Prior to this date results from CT2019 are plotted. In the top panel, measured mole fractions (filled black circles) are plotted along with CarbonTracker simulated values (filled light blue circles). Any observations that CarbonTracker can not assimilate successfully are shown as filled red circles. (b) The time series of model residuals--the difference between the simulated and measured mole fractions--shown with dark green filled circles. These residuals should be uncorrelated in time, unbiased (i.e., have a mean of zero), and distributed normally. Also shown in the lower panel is the imposed model-data mismatch ("MDM", orange lines), which in part defines the rejection criterion (see documentation). Any model first guess value which is more than three times the MDM away from zero, after accounting for potential adjustments to the simulated value due to optimizing fluxes, is rejected by the optimization system. Rejected values, if there are any, are shown with filled red circles.
(c) Summary statistics for model residuals from to . Residuals are defined as simluated values minus observed values. "Bias" is the mean of the residuals; "std. dev." is the standard deviation, and RMSE is root-mean-square error. All quantities are in ppm of CO2. The time period over which these quantities are computed is set by the graphs (a) and (b).