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Shoemaker, L. G., J. C. Turnbull, P. P. Tans, J. B. Miller, B. H. Vaughn, S. E. Michel, and S. J. Lehman (2010), Fingerprints of Emissions and the Carbon Cycle: Stable and Radiocarbon Isotopes of Carbon Dioxide, NOAA/ESRL,

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References used in this website

  1. IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change section 10.4.2 Ocean Acidification Due to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
    • The IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change) has currently published four assessment reports on the science behind climate change. The most recent, published in 2007, contains four volumes, which can be found at:
  2. O'Leary, M.H., Madhavan, S. and Paneth, P. 1992, Physical and chemical basis of carbon isotope fractionation in plants. Plant, Cell, and Environment, 15, 1099-1104.
    • This paper provides a detailed description about different fractionation process, specifically in biology.
  3. Congressional Research Service (Content source); Maggie L. Walser (Topic Editor). 2009. "Greenhouse gas emissions- perspectives on the top 20 emitters and developed versus developing nations." In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth April 4, 2008; Last revised September 2, 2009; Retrieved June 11, 2010] < >.
    • Discusses differences in emissions and emission requirements in various nations.
  4. E.J. Finehout and K.H. Lee. (2003). An Introduction to Mass Spectrometry Applications, Biological Research, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 32(2), 93-100.
    • An example of other uses of stable isotope mass spectrometry.
  5. J.W. Wong, M.K. Hennessy, D.G. Hayward, A.J. Krynitsky, I. Cassias, and F.J. Schenck. (2007). Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Dried Ground Ginseng Root by Capillary Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and –Flame Photometric Detection, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55(4), 1117-1128.
    • Another example of other uses of stable isotope mass spectrometry.
  6. Currie, K.I., Brailsford, G., Nichol, S., Gomez, A., Sparks, R., Lassey, K.R., and Riedel, K. 2009. Tropospheric 14CO2 at Wellington, New Zealand: the world's longest record, Biogeochemistry.
    • Data on changes in 14C caused by nuclear testing.
  7. Levin, I. and Kromer, B. (2004). The tropospheric 14CO2 level in mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere (1959-2003). Radiocarbon, Vol. 46, Nr. 3, Pgs 1261-1272.
    • Additional data on changes in 14C caused by nuclear testing.
  8. Vaughn, BH., et al. (2004). Stable isotope measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CH4., Handbook of Stable Isotope Analytical Techniques, vol 1, ch.14, Elsiever, 1248.
    • Discusses both carbon dioxide and methane isotopes with an overview of their importance and methods of analysis.
  9. Huff, A.K. and Thiemens, M.H. (1998). 17O /16O and 18O /16O isotope measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide and its sources. Geophysical research letters, Vol. 25, No. 18, Pg. 3509-3512.
    • This paper looks at oxygen isotopes in carbon monoxide and their two major sources.
  10. Manning, M.R., Lowe, D.C., Moss, R.C., Bodeker, G.E., and Allan, W. (2005). Short-term variations in the oxidizing power of the atmosphere. Nature letters, Vol. 436, No. 18, Pg. 1001-1004.
    • This paper discusses measuring the amount of OH in the atmosphere using 14C in carbon monoxide.
  11. Wuebbles, D.J. and Hayhoe, K. (2002). Atmospheric methane and global change. Earth-Science Reviews 57, Pg. 177-210.
    • Atmospheric methane and global change examines our current understanding of atmospheric methane and its impact on the climate.
  12. Ferretti, et al. (2005). Unexpected changes to the global methane budget over the past 2000 years. Science 309, 1714, Pg. 1714-1716.
    • This scientific paper looks at changes in the strength of different methane sources over the last 2,000 years.
  13. Earth Science Literacy Initiative. National Science Foundation. <>.
    • This is the homepage for the Earth Science Literacy Initiative.